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11-Oct-2017 18:31

(at least down to the Mongol period) is a well-known phenomenon, and it was my experience also in the excavations at Rayy that the vast majority of copper coins (and of course copper coins predominate in excavation finds) found at all Islamic levels were of the second half of the 2nd century. Whatever other causes there may have been to explain the limitation of copper issues in later centuries, it is quite possible that the large volume of coppers struck under the rules of al-Manṣūr, al-Mahdi and Hārūn al-Rashīd met the needs for small change of most communities throughout the East for several centuries.11 Among the 'Abbāsid coins are no less than 24 hitherto unpublished issues (30, if varieties are counted): including one of Arrajān, four of Ardashīr-Khurrah, five of Iṣṭakhr, one of al-Ahwāz, one of Birāmqubādh, one of Jayy, three of Sābūr, one of Shīrāz, one of Fārs, two of Fasā, one of Wāsiṭ, and one without mint name. In general appearance, of course, these coins are very similar and only the literate could have distinguished between a dirhem of Khosrau II and one of an Arab governor.

Three new mints are recorded: Jūr, the specific mint name for the chief town of the district of Ardashīr-Khurrah; Tawwaj, a town near Kāzirūn in the Ardashīr-Khurrah district; and Kūrat al-Mahdīyah min Fārs, a temporary official name for Ardashīr-Khurrah.12 Some of these coins bear names of officials and fill gaps in the recorded history of 'Abbāsid administration. The distribution of mints in the hoard is of some interest.

Unfortunately, except for the silver dirhems, these coins are in a miserable state of preservation, as the plates will attest, and are for the most part exceedingly obscure; but what remains is of remarkable interest and adds much to our knowledge of the transitional period between the Arab conquest of Iran and the adoption of a standardized purely Arab coinage at the very end of the 7th century.13 It is not surprising to learn that at least ten of these issues (probably we would be able to say most of them, if the mint name was preserved in every instance) were struck at Iṣṭakhr itself. A few words about the specific find-spots of the coins from the Iṣṭakhr excavations. 3–12 of the catalogue) excavated in the south-west quarter of the center test (no. This hoard also was found in the center test, in the north-east quarter of the 20 × 20 meter square. Two unique and very interesting Arab-Sasanian bronzes (nos. This coin belongs to Hill's Fourth Series, which he dates from the 1st century after Christ to about 224 A.

Especially noteworthy are the following: an issue of al-Muhallab b. ) with MUHLUP in Pahlevi and what appears to be a purely epigraphical Pahlevi reverse (no. The largest number of coins from any single area was found in the 1935 excavations of four ten-meter squares in the center (no. There were two other sizable groups of coins found together in the Iṣṭakhr excavations. 1 on Plate XIX), among pre-Islamic debris 3.80 meters below the surface. 'Ubaydullāh, and were struck at the same mint, Bishāpūr: five of the year 67 H., two of 68 H. The coins, partly stuck together and partly loose, were recovered from a pit, 9.27 meters below its mouth, which in turn was 2.35 meters below the surface. 54 and 55) also came from the Naqsh-i Rustam excavations: a hybrid Byzantine Arab-Sasanian piece with a facing bearded head surmounted by a cross on the obverse and an M reverse accompanied by legible Pahlevi inscriptions (the name of Iṣṭakhr written out almost in full, and the word ); and an equally remarkable coin with a new type of bust combined with Kufic legends of post-reform type. In each section the arrangement is basically chronological, with sub-divisions, where appropriate, according to mints.

The paucity of copper coins struck in Persia after the end of the second century H. It is interesting, but not surprising, to note that Sasanian dirhems, not counterstamped, appear to have circulated along with the Arab-Sasanian.

The coins from the 19 excavations were originally catalogued at Persepolis by the writer.

Those from the subsequent years were preliminarily recorded by Wilhelm Eilers. Schmidt, Persepolis I, Structures, Reliefs, Inscriptions (Oriental Institute Publications, Vol.

One should, however, remark that these proportions are scarcely a reliable reflection of the relative importance of the several eras in terms of the area occupied or the size of the population at different times.

The total area of the site is extensive: the circumvallated inner city measures 1,400 meters from east to west, and 650 meters from north to south.

The paucity of copper coins struck in Persia after the end of the second century H. It is interesting, but not surprising, to note that Sasanian dirhems, not counterstamped, appear to have circulated along with the Arab-Sasanian.

The coins from the 19 excavations were originally catalogued at Persepolis by the writer.

Those from the subsequent years were preliminarily recorded by Wilhelm Eilers. Schmidt, Persepolis I, Structures, Reliefs, Inscriptions (Oriental Institute Publications, Vol.

One should, however, remark that these proportions are scarcely a reliable reflection of the relative importance of the several eras in terms of the area occupied or the size of the population at different times.

The total area of the site is extensive: the circumvallated inner city measures 1,400 meters from east to west, and 650 meters from north to south.

The following table shows the distribution of coins unearthed in the Iṣṭakhr excavations according to broad chronological categories: The 'Abbāsid is by far the largest class, and of this class all but ten coins (nos. Bust of king, 1., bearded; thick back hair; wearing diadem, torque and robe with fringe of vertical stripes.